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Lilac - one of the most beloved garden shrubs, which is associated with the most romantic and beautiful period of spring flowering - lilac. There are over 30 species of plants with flowers of various colors, from blue-violet to pink, cream and snow-white. The most widely represented in our gardens is the common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), which came to us from the southeastern part of Europe.
Its lush bushes can reach a height of five meters, however, there are more compact forms that fit perfectly into small-sized gardens. Chinese lilac growing "alone" and characterized by abundant flowering (S. chinensis), the number of inflorescences of which increases every year, over time, can become a star of the first magnitude and successfully act as the central figure of the entire garden composition. The dark purple lilac variety of the Chinese "Saugeana", which is rightly called royal, is notable for its rare beauty. Among other widespread species - Hungarian lilac (S.josikaea), which became famous for the length of inflorescences (up to 20 cm!), bent (S.reflexa) with the original color of flower brushes - dark pink on the outside and almost white inside, as well as a very fragrant lilac zvegifleks (S.swegiflexa) - hyiorid of lilac Zvegintsov and bent.
Among the varieties that have appeared in recent years, there are many interesting novelties, such as the early-flowering purple-purple variety "Amethyst"common lilac, blooming in mid-May, and hyacinth-shaped lilac (S.hyacinthiflora) "Rosenrot" with very fragrant inflorescences and unusual leaves, which by the fall acquire a beautiful red color. The unusual variety of inflorescences resembling panicles of astilbe attracts the attention of the variety "City of toronto"Japanese net lilac (S. reticulata) It is especially good in frame culture as a standard tree or compact bush. A exclusive variety "Aucubaefolia"The ordinary lilac captivates with its eccentricity: against the background of its yellow-green motley leaves in mid-May, first dark purple buds appear, and then cobalt-blue double flowers open.
Cultivation on the site
To grow lilac in the country, you will not need to make a lot of efforts and study agricultural technology for a long time, it will be enough for you to learn a few simple rules, which we will talk about today.
The location of the plant in the country
Bushes prefer well-lit places, and therefore, it is recommended to plant them in the sun. It can be a place near the summer house, and a place near the hedge, at the entrance to the site where the plant will meet you all spring with a magnificent color. It is only necessary to try to choose the location of the bush so that the lilac is not blown by cold winds and does not grow in a draft.
It is very undesirable to grow lilacs in places where water stagnation often occurs; you should not choose wetlands with heavy soils.
Soil for lilac
It is best to choose fertile, well-drained, moderately moist and high humus soil for the plant. It will be correct to choose a place with a deep occurrence of groundwater, as well as neutral or slightly acidic soil, which is most suitable for growing lilac and its constant development.
Landing takes place on the site from mid-July to early September. You can try to plant lilacs and a little at another time, in the fall or in the spring, but then there is a chance that the plant will take root poorly, and next year will practically not give growth.
There is no definite planting scheme, the main thing is that there should be a distance of several meters between the bushes, since near the planted bushes they will obscure each other, intertwine and grow poorly.
Pits for lilacs do not make gentle, the walls of the pits should be sheer. If you are going to plant lilacs on medium fertile soils, you will need to dig a hole 50x50x50 cm, but if the soil is poor or sandy, you will need to significantly increase the planting pits to 100x100x100 cm.
Each landing pit is filled with a special substrate so that the lilacs take root and develop normally. Composition of the substrate: 20 kg of compost, 250 g of wood ash, 25-30 g of superphosphate. All components will need to be mixed well. If planting occurs on acidic soils, it is recommended to increase the portion of ash in the substrate, since superphosphate additionally acidifies it. The total acidity of the finished mixture for planting should be 6.6-7.5 pH.
For planting, you need to choose a healthy and well-developed planting material so that your work is not in vain when the seedlings die. Choose material with a branched root system, a good top, properly cut to the state of 2-3 paired kidneys.
Make a cut to the required norm and remove the diseased and dry parts of the rhizome from the seedling, if any.
The best time for planting a plant is in the evening, when the sun has practically set, or cloudy weather. Lilacs are planted in the planting pits quite simply - the seedlings are installed in the center, the root system is neatly straightened and wakes up with a ready-made substrate, which is then lightly compacted.
Immediately after planting, lilacs should be carefully watered, and after the water is absorbed into the soil, it is necessary to mulch humus or peat, not more than 7 cm. During the growing season, it is recommended to loosen the soil around the lilac, 5-7 cm deep, only 3- 4 times.
The first few years after planting, the lilac does not require fertilizers, since we planted it in a solid nutrient mixture. An exception may be only nitrogen, which will require very little. From the second year after planting, nitrogen is introduced in the form of urea - 50 g or ammonium nitrate, not more than 70-80 g per plant. Organic is considered effective and more useful - about 1 bucket of slurry per bush.
From the end of the second or already from the third year, the shrub can be fed with a mullein solution, a ratio of 1: 5, which must be applied to the soil at a distance of at least 50 cm from the plant trunk.
Mineral fertilizers can also be used, but not more often than once every few years. It will be enough to fertilize the lilac with potash and phosphoric fertilizers, planting them in the soil of trunks at a depth of about 5 cm. Double superphosphate - 30-40 g and potassium nitrate - 30 g are introduced into the soil. If you want to use complex fertilizer, you can choose the most suitable and inexpensive - wood ash with water (200 g of ash per 7-8 liters of water). At the same time, it is necessary to loosen the soil, remove weeds, conduct moderate watering in dry periods.
Pruning lilacs is necessary in order to support its growth and annual flowering. Pruning occurs from the third year after planting, when the plant forms skeletal branches.
At the base of the bush there are about a dozen strong branches, which should be left, the rest are simply removed. This must be done in early spring, when the plant has not yet awakened, but if necessary, pruning is done at any time during the growing season.
It is very useful to cut the flowering shoots of lilac, as this stimulates the growth and subsequent flowering. It is advisable to cut at least 70% of all flowering shoots.
Diseases and Pests
Like all plants, lilacs are susceptible to the harmful effects of pests and certain diseases. A little further, very briefly about what pests and diseases are possible and how to deal with them.
You can fight bacterial rot with the help of copper chloroxide, which should be sprayed with the plant every 10-12 days when this disease manifests itself.
The Bordeaux fluid, which should be sprayed throughout the bush, copes quite well with late blight.
Chlorophos or rotor will help get rid of moths. With these drugs, it is necessary to completely treat the entire plant.
Having noticed a pest on lilac bushes, urgently treat them with phthalophos (0.1%).
If you want to propagate lilac bushes in the country, you do not have to make serious efforts, it will be enough to choose the most suitable method of propagation and follow our tips.
Propagation by cuttings
Green propagation cuttings must be removed from the mother plant during its flowering period. At the moment, the growth of the stalk itself is being stopped. Shoots with 4-6 leaves that are not woody are chosen.
Not all cuttings are rooted, and be prepared for the fact that you get only about 50% of the plants that you planted, especially if you take into account the fact that some varieties can not be propagated by cuttings at all. But, if you have planted a lilac of Havemeira, Saint Margaret, India, the Mulatto, Hope or the Olympics in your country, then everything should turn out pretty well.
To cut the cuttings, it is advisable to choose a younger bush, cut the necessary number of cuttings from it (always at an angle) and treat the cuttings with root stimulants. Further, it remains only to plant the cuttings in prepared pits with a substrate of perlite, peat and sand (it is necessary to plant vertically). If lilac is planted in greenhouses, it is necessary to increase the humidity there, to bring it closer to 100%.
Vaccination of lilac
If you want to get a colorful plant, you can always get a standard vaccination. Choose cuttings of varieties that do not show good rooting, and carry out a simple vaccination on an adult plant. Next year you will not only be surprised yourself, but also surprise your neighbors in the country.
Propagation by layering
Lilacs can also be propagated by layering, by digging in the year-old branches of the plant, which are located in the lower part of the bush. They must be pinned, otherwise the layers will rise. Having well fixed layering, they must be buried in fertile soil and constantly try to keep this area moist. If the cultivated variety is able to propagate by layering, then by the end of autumn, layering can be separated and transplanted.
Varietal lilacs can be propagated by seeds collected from ripened buds. The collection must be made in late autumn, preferably in November, when the boxes open. Ready panicles will need to be cut from the bush and dried, and after that just knock out the seeds.
Planting with seeds can occur in the winter, but you can hold them up to the spring period by stratification. Such seedlings begin to bloom only for 4-5 years, and most often do not reproduce the initial qualities of the mother plant. Experts say that lilacs can grow a prettier, and maybe even inconspicuous bush.
How is the planting and cultivation of lilacs (video)
Try to give due attention to lilacs at first, but then it will not require special care from you, since it is not a whimsical plant. In just a few waterings a year, loosening the soil and timely cutting, it is ready to please you with bright colors and pleasant aromas for a very long time.
To grow a lilac bush, a really beautiful and lush bush, is very simple, and the reason for this is the nature of the plant, which requires almost no effort from you. And therefore, if you want to see lilacs on your own plot, be sure to plant it now, because it is always nice to watch such a pretty plant and understand that it is grown with your own hands.