Planting tomatoes in open ground in the Urals

Planting tomatoes in open ground in the Urals

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It is quite difficult to grow thermophilic crops in the Urals, since the climate of the region is characterized by short, cold summers. On average, only 70-80 days per season do not bode well for frost. Under such conditions, tomatoes with a long ripening period do not have time to fully bear fruit. That is why farmers mainly use early maturing varieties for cultivation. They are cultivated in seedlings with subsequent planting in protected ground. At the same time, it is especially important to know exactly when to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse in the Urals, so as not to harm the plants and at the same time collect the maximum tomato harvest per season.

Sowing seeds for seedlings

For cultivation in the Urals, early ripening varieties of tomatoes should be preferred. According to gardeners, in such conditions, Moldavsky early, Siberian early ripening, White filling and others have proven themselves well. The fruits of these early ripening tomatoes ripen 100-115 days after the seedlings have appeared. At the same time, these varieties are high-yielding and allow you to harvest up to 15 kg of vegetables per season from each 1m2 soil. Also, the advantage of the varieties is the amicable ripening of fruits, which allows you to get the maximum return from plants before the onset of autumn frosts.

By choosing a variety of tomatoes, you can determine the date of planting seeds for seedlings. Suppose it is decided to grow an early ripening variety "Siberian early ripening". The ripening period of its fruits is 114-120 days. You can plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse in the Urals in late May - early June. By this time, the plants should have 6-8 true leaves, which is typical for the age of 50-60 days. It should also be borne in mind that from the day of sowing to the germination of the seed, it takes about a week. Thus, it is easy to calculate that the seeds of this early maturing variety should be sown for seedlings in late March - early April.

Modern breeding offers gardeners not only early ripening varieties of tomatoes, but also ultra-early ripening ones. The ripening period for their fruits is less than 90 days. An example of such a variety can be the tomato "Aurora f1", "Biathlon", "Gavroche" and others. It is necessary to sow seeds of these varieties for seedlings at the end of April.

Attention! At 30-40 days of age, tomato seedlings can be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse.

It is worth noting that ultra-early ripening varieties have proven themselves excellently for cultivation in the Urals, since they are capable of bearing fruit even in its northern regions.

It is worth noting that the Urals are distinguished by climatic diversity. So, the climate of the northern and southern parts of the region should be distinguished. The Northern Urals are indeed characterized by severe weather conditions, but its southern part is quite acceptable for cultivation, including tomato varieties with a long ripening period. The varieties "Babushkin's gift f1", "Veneta", "Palermo" are available to farmers of the South Urals. These tomatoes ripen in 130-140 days, which means that their seeds need to be sown for seedlings in early March. The favorable climate of this part of the region makes it possible to plant tomato seedlings in the greenhouse in early May.

Thus, the time of sowing the seed and the time of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse depends on the selected tomato variety and the climate of the part of the region where the crop will grow.

Lunar calendar tips

It is believed that the phases of the moon can positively or negatively affect plants. During the descent of the moon, it is recommended to plant plants growing downward, deep into the earth, i.e. root crops. A young, growing moon has a beneficial effect on the growth of stems, branches and other components of the aerial part of the plant. That is why sowing tomato seeds and planting plants in the ground is recommended during the growth of the moon. The transition of a companion from one zodiac sign to another can also have an impact on plant growth. Thus, the gardener's lunar calendar recommends sowing tomato seeds for seedlings in early March and the second decade of April.

If you pay attention to specific dates, then the best time for sowing tomato seeds for seedlings is March 4, 5, April 8, 12, 13. If it is necessary to sow tomato seeds for seedlings at the end of April, then it is better to do this on the 26-28th.

When planning the planting of tomatoes in a greenhouse, you also need to take into account the recommendations of the lunar calendar. Considering the climate of the Urals, and choosing dates in late May - early June, you should pay attention to the dates on May 24, 25 and June 2, 7, 11.

Skeptics who do not take into account the phases of the moon in their agricultural activities need to understand that the Earth's satellite has a direct impact on the ebb and flow of water in the oceans, the life cycles of some animals and even the mood of people. Having such an influence on the occurring earthly phenomena, for sure, the Moon will have a beneficial effect on young shoots, accelerating the process of their growing season and making the tomatoes stronger.

Features of growing seedlings

When growing tomato seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the Ural climate. Seeds should be hardened even before sowing into the ground. This will allow the tomatoes to grow more adaptable to frost in early spring, cool summer weather. Seedlings grown from hardened seeds take root better in a new place and subsequently form more ovaries.

There are several ways to harden tomato seeds:

  • 8-10 days before the expected disembarkation, the change must be wrapped in a rag bag and dripped into the snow for 3-4 hours, after which they must be warmed at room temperature. This hardening procedure should be repeated several times over 3 days. After that, the seeds can be treated with disinfectants, growth activators, germinated and sown on seedlings.
  • The variable temperature method is popular with gardeners. It consists in placing swollen, but not germinated seeds in the refrigerator for 12 hours. After such cooling, the seeds are warmed for 6 hours at room conditions. This hardening cycle must be repeated until the sprouts appear.

You can find out some other details about hardening tomato seeds in the video:

Seeds hardened during planting give stronger and more viable sprouts that will not be afraid of the spring cold and summer whims of the Ural weather, but despite this, in the process of growing seedlings, you also need to additionally harden the plants.

It is necessary to prepare tomato seedlings for new conditions 3-4 weeks before the day of the proposed planting. The first hardening procedures should be short and gentle. For example, you can open a window in a room where containers with seedlings are installed for 10-15 minutes. This will lower the room temperature and oxygenate the room. During such hardening, it is very important to ensure that there is no draft, as it can be detrimental to young plants.

The next stage of hardening can be a decrease in night temperatures. Suppose seedlings from a room with a temperature of + 22- + 230C can be taken out to a glazed balcony or loggia, where the temperature is slightly lower. Recommended night temperatures should be around + 17- + 180FROM.

A week before planting tomato seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to start taking the plants out into fresh air, if it is supposed to plant plants in open ground, or in a greenhouse, if it later becomes a place of constant growth. It is necessary to accustom tomato seedlings to new conditions by gradually increasing the time from half an hour to a round-the-clock stay.

The process of hardening seedlings is quite painstaking, but it is mandatory for growing tomatoes in the Urals. The seedlings prepared in this way will be maximally adapted to the new conditions. After planting, hardened plants do not experience stress and do not stop growth.

Important! According to the observations of experienced farmers, it was found that tomatoes grown in compliance with the rules for hardening seedlings bear 30% more fruit than plants that have not undergone heat treatment.

Planting plants in the ground

You can plant tomatoes in open ground during a period when night temperatures do not drop below +120C. At the same time, temperature indicators during the day should be at the level of + 21- + 250C. In the conditions of the Southern Urals, such weather is typical for mid-May, while the northern part of the region is much colder and such conditions can be expected only by mid-June. You can plant tomatoes in the greenhouse 2-3 weeks earlier.

Advice! At the time of planting, tomato seedlings should have 6-8 true leaves. Its height should not exceed 30 cm. The optimum height of tomato seedlings is 20-25 cm.

The trunks of the plants should be strong, and the leaves should be healthy and green.

In the northern part of the Urals, gardeners should create warm beds in greenhouses. The organic matter embedded in their thickness will additionally warm the roots of plants and become a source of nutrients. On warm beds, tomatoes are not afraid of short-term cold snaps, the fruiting process is more active, the yield increases significantly.

In harsh climates in the early stages of disembarkation, you can resort to creating additional heating measures. So, in the greenhouse, the planted seedlings can be additionally covered with a film on arcs or made the greenhouse heated. You can also protect young seedlings from frost by additionally covering the plants with rags or old carpets.

It is worth noting that additional shelter in the greenhouse is an effective means of protecting young plants from possible frosts, since the greenhouse itself has impressive dimensions, a large air volume and a large area of ​​contact with the external environment. During the day, the air and soil in the shelter warms up enough, but at the same time it cools down rather quickly in the evening. Additional shelter in this case allows you to keep the warmth of the earth throughout the night. Of course, adult plants do not need to be covered in a greenhouse, since they already have enough strength and energy to successfully survive short-term cold snaps.

In the Urals, you can harvest a full-fledged, bountiful harvest of tomatoes in a greenhouse, but it should be remembered that the early onset of autumn can interrupt the fruiting period with the arrival of frost, therefore, in August, tall tomatoes should be pinched. This will allow existing ovaries to mature faster. Also, in order to obtain a bountiful harvest in full, at the stage of choosing a variety, it is worth giving preference to tomatoes, with amicable ripening of fruits.

Let's summarize

Thus, it is possible to grow tomatoes in the Urals only taking into account the climatic features. Late spring, harsh summer and early autumn oblige the gardener to accurately calculate the time of sowing seeds for seedlings and choose only suitable varieties for this. Hardening is an additional measure to prepare young plants for climatic conditions, but even after carrying out the whole complex of hardening measures, the plants after planting in the greenhouse require care and attention. At the same time, only with his own labor and efforts, the gardener will be able to get truly delicious tomatoes grown by his own hands.

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