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All lovers of "quiet hunting" are familiar with mushrooms - a wonderful gift from the Russian forest and a natural delicacy. In the ranking of mushrooms of the first category, they occupy the very top positions. A photo and description of the mushroom mushroom make it clear that this species combines great taste with an organic appearance. A bright, slightly velvety hat on a chunky leg betrays a noble origin. Finding and putting a mushroom in your basket is considered a great success. For a long time, salted and pickled ginger mushrooms were considered a delicious dish of traditional Russian cuisine, served on tables, both at the court and at the peasants'.
Why was the mushroom called camelina
The scientific name of the mushroom is Lactarius deliciosus (lactarius delishes), or delicacy milkman. It reflects the property, to allocate tart milky juice on the break of the pulp. Another (popular) name - "mushroom" - the mushroom received because of the corresponding color of the fruit body.
Just like chanterelles, the bright color of this type of mushroom is provided by the unsaturated hydrocarbon contained in their pulp - beta-carotene, or vitamin A, which is extremely necessary for the human body.
Why are mushrooms called royal mushrooms
Russia has always been famous for its salty mushrooms. They were so popular that they were given the proud status of "royal mushrooms". They were served at the royal table and exported to Europe. In the season when there was a particular abundance, the raw mushrooms were sprinkled with salt in large barrels. It is known that up to 300 tons of mushrooms were salted annually in the northern Olonets province alone. The so-called calibrated mushrooms, packaged in bottles, were exported. For this, small, neat specimens were specially selected. Such bottles looked very aesthetically pleasing and were in great demand among Europeans, although they were quite expensive.
What mushrooms look like
Delicious Miller is a lamellar mushroom with a fleshy fruiting body. The hat and its leg are tightly connected to each other, without gaps. There is a clear border between them. The color can have different shades, depending on the variety and place of growth. Mushrooms growing in pine forests are most brightly colored, spruce trees can be whitish, yellowish-buffy, gray-olive. The hat is adorned with green or dark red concentric circles radiating outward from the center.
Important! A distinctive feature of the lactarius is the strong oxidation of the pulp at the sites of damage, from which it turns green. Orange milky juice and fragile hymenophore plates have the same property.
Description of mushroom mushroom
Various types of saffron milk caps can be found in the forests of the center and north of the European part of Russia, in the Urals, the Far East, Siberia. They make up mycorrhiza with conifers, settling mainly on their northern side. An exception is the oak mushroom, which lives in mycorrhiza with broad-leaved species. Millechniks settle in large families, located on the north side of the tree.
Gingerbread is a sun mushroom. He settles in well-lit places - on hills, in clearings, in meadows and along roadside shoulders. Colonies of this variety grow on sandy loam, moderately moist soils. Dry or too wet soil is not desirable. Millers can form the so-called "witch circles", since the filaments of their myceliums grow radially - from the center to the periphery.
The ripening period begins in the second half of summer. The main harvest time is early autumn (from the second half of September to mid-October), but it can last until November, right up to the beginning of frost. It is autumn specimens with a denser pulp that are suitable for salting and pickling.
The trace element composition of these mushrooms is striking in its richness. A large amount of valuable protein makes them similar to meat products, and in terms of the variety of minerals and vitamins, they can be attributed to vegetables.
In addition to beta-carotene, which gives the mushroom an elegant shade, its pulp contains vitamins C, B1, B9, B12. Of the chemical elements, the following are the most valuable (approximate content per copy):
- potassium - 397 mg;
- calcium - 9 mg;
- phosphorus - 166 mg.
The mushroom contains a large amount of easily digestible amino acids. But the substance fungin, which is in the cell walls, makes it difficult for the liver to function. In order for this polysaccharide of the chitinous series not to harm the work of the gastrointestinal tract, it is worth crushing the milkmen before cooking. Mushroom caviar or paste will bring maximum benefits and are easily absorbed by the body.
The mushroom is a unique source of an antibacterial substance - lactriviolin. It is a strong natural antibiotic that successfully fights a number of disease-causing bacteria, including Koch's bacillus. Many pharmaceutical organizations process mushrooms industrially to obtain pure lactriviolin.
When collecting all varieties of saffron milk caps, you should pay attention to young mushrooms. They are usually clean, not prone to rot and attack by fungal worms. Old mushrooms quickly become rotten and wormy.
Description of the mushroom leg
Gingerbread has a leg from 3 to 7 cm long, hollow in the middle. Its surface is smooth, slightly pubescent and covered with small cells, painted in the same color as the cap or slightly brighter. The pulp is brittle, at the break it is greenish, due to the reaction with oxygen. Narrower at the top, the leg broadens slightly downward. Its diameter can be up to 2.5 cm.
Description of the cap of the saffron milk cap
The cap of the saffron milk cap can reach a diameter of 17 cm. In a young specimen, it is hemispherical or flattened, later it becomes convex or convex-outstretched, with edges curled down. With age, a funnel-shaped depression or a small tubercle appears in the center of the cap, and its edges become straight. The surface is smooth or slightly pubescent. Usually it is dry, and with high humidity it becomes a little slimy. An important distinguishing feature of the saffron milk cap is the peculiar color of the surface. It is characterized by alternation of light and dark concentric circles.
The mushroom has a dense pulp that oxidizes easily when damaged. It has increased fragility due to the content of a large number of blister cells. Special milky hyphae contain milky juice, which is shown on the break of the pulp. It has a thick or watery consistency, tart or sweetish taste.
The pulp perfectly absorbs all the forest aromas that surrounded the mushroom during its development. This is a fruity smell, and the smell of fallen leaves, decay, moss. And mushrooms collected in ecologically difficult areas become dirty and unsuitable for food.
The cap has a lamellar hymenophore with thin, slightly branching plates, slightly converging on the pedicle. A raw mushroom can taste bitter, tart, astringent, or sweet.
What are mushrooms
Numerous variations of the milkman differ somewhat in nutritional value and appearance. Below are several photos of the varieties of the mushroom with a description.
Gingerbreads are real
Pine mushrooms, or real mushrooms, are the most valuable. They grow in pine forests, are very beautiful in appearance, have the ideal shape of an edible mushroom and a bright color - all shades of orange and red. With aging, lactic acid makers turn green. In a young mushroom, the cap is glossy, slightly rounded, and evenly colored. This variety has a long collection period - until the November frost.
This mushroom has a darker color, but fades over time. It is shallower - the diameter of its cap does not exceed 8 cm. Over time, a rather deep funnel forms on the cap, the edges remain straight. The pulp is highly susceptible to oxidation. The circles on the cap are not very pronounced. Spruce is usually slightly bitter in taste.
Red capsicum also lives in coniferous forests. This dry mushroom is distinguished by the absence of milky juice on the fracture and mucus on the surface of the cap. Its leg is covered with a mealy bloom with red veins, the color can vary from orange to purple. The pulp is pinkish and is highly fragile.
Japanese mushroom, fir
Japanese camelina grows in the south of Primorsky Krai, in the forests of Japan. He lives in mixed forests, making up mycorrhiza with fir. The active collection period is in September and October. This is a small mushroom, its cap does not exceed 8 cm. In young specimens, the shape of the cap is flat with curled edges, and in adults it is funnel-shaped. The upper skin is light brown in color. Hymenophore plates are pinkish-orange. The leg reaches 7 cm in length. The pulp of the mushroom is light, red-orange, oxidized in air. The mushroom has no pronounced taste.
Oak mushroom, or oak mushroom
Oak mushroom is found in deciduous forests in the European part of Russia, as well as in Finland, France, Great Britain. It belongs to conditionally edible mushrooms; it grows in oak groves. This species is harvested from early July to mid-September.
The mushroom has a flat, irregular, red-orange cap with dark, concentric rings. With age, it acquires a funnel-shaped depression in the center. The leg is brighter, thickening downwards, reaching a height of 7 cm. The white flesh turns pink over time. A bitter white juice stands out on the cut. The mushroom needs soaking before cooking.
Wine mushroom, or wine red
It is a variety of red saffron milk cap and has a dry glossy wine-red cap, decorated with rings. His hymenophore plates are narrow, darken over time. The pulp at the break is white, at the skin it changes color to dark, in the air oxidation occurs with a change in color. When fractured, a dark red sap is released. The leg of this species is up to 3 cm thick, reaches 6 cm in height, has an orange-pink tint with red pustules.
Finnish gingerbread, blue
The Finnish camelina is found in mixed forests in Karelia and northern Russia. It grows next to old spruce trees.
The mushroom has a cap up to 8 cm in diameter, which is brightly colored in the center in olive color and fades towards the center. The hymenophore has narrow pale orange plates. The pulp, white in the center, turns orange towards the edge and turns blue at the cut. Orange milky juice also oxidizes in air. The leg of the mushroom reaches 11 cm in length. It thickens at the base.
How to identify mushrooms
You need to know what a mushroom looks like in order to be able to distinguish it from similar mushrooms. The twins can be conditionally edible, inedible, or poisonous specimens.
Differences from pink waves
Volnushka refers to conditionally edible mushrooms. She settles in birch groves, is in a symbiotic relationship with old birches. Unlike saffron milk cap, it has a pale pink cap with rounded fringed edges. Its pulp is dense, white, does not darken at the break, gives a light milky juice with a bitter taste.
Important! Volnushka is good for food only after careful pre-processing.
Differences from an inedible weight
The inedible lactobacillus, or amber milk jug, has a white leg, solid on the cut. His hat is pinkish-brown, without circles. Hymenophore plates are light. The yellow flesh does not change color when exposed to air. Such a specimen has an unpleasant odor and a bitter taste. Its milky juice is watery, bitter in taste and also does not oxidize.
Differences from chanterelles
Chanterelle is a wonderful edible mushroom, similar in nutritional value to camelina. Mushrooms can be confused, although the differences between the two are quite significant. In the chanterelle, the shape of the cap has a pronounced funnel shape, and there are no concentric rings on it. The cap smoothly passes into the leg, while the saffron milk cap has a clear border between the cap and the leg.
Differences from the pale toadstool
A very dangerous poisonous mushroom bears some resemblance to camelina. The main difference is the presence of a thin, pale leg with a characteristic skirt. The hat is also pale and has rounded edges. There are no concentric circles on it.
Photo and description of the mushroom mushroom testify to the diversity of representatives of this species and the wide range of its growth. Red king mushrooms can be found in any forest. However, you should not buy them from your hands, it is better to assemble them yourself and at the same time make sure that there are no large industries or busy highways nearby. This is the only way to be sure that the mushrooms caught in the basket are clean and will not bring anything but benefit.