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Chemalskaya plum is appreciated by gardeners for its high yield, unpretentiousness, resistance to low temperatures, beautiful appearance and taste characteristics. Its tantalizing aroma and original taste will not leave anyone indifferent.
Breeding history of the variety
Scientists have made great strides in creating new winter-hardy plum varieties. The result of this work is the plum of the Siberian selection Chemalskaya, which was obtained at the M.A.Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture in the mountainous region of Altai (Chemal village). The plum variety Chemalskaya was included in the State Register in 1974 and approved for use in such regions as: East Siberian, West Siberian, Uralsky.
Description of a series of varieties Chemalskaya
The culture forms a round, drooping, thickened crown. The plant has a bouquet type of fruiting. The branches are grayish. The stem is low. Shoots are thin, straight, brownish in color, have polygamy of small lentils. Vegetative buds are in the form of a cone, fruit buds are in the form of a circle.
The plant is decorated with medium-sized green foliage. The leaf plate has a blunt-conical base, slightly concave, with a curved tip. The petiole is small in length, of medium thickness. The bud forms 2-3 flowers. The variety is characterized by a cupped corolla and small white petals.
Chemalskaya plum varieties are medium in size: height 25 cm, diameter 27 mm. The weight of one fruit is 14-16 g. The pulp is distinguished by its juiciness, tenderness with slightly noticeable acidity, and excellent taste. The seeds are medium in size, elongated oval in shape. The peduncle is short, easily separated from the fruit.
The plant is of medium height. Matte foliage, ovoid, tinted green. Of interest are medium-sized fruits of a round shape, maroon color with a pronounced waxy bloom. The mass of one plum is 20 g. The variety has earned popularity due to the pulp of a yellowish-white color with a sweet and sour taste.
The tree is medium-sized, with a wide spreading crown. Fruits of a round shape, painted in cherry color, attract attention. The mass of one Chemalskaya plum is 15 grams. The orange-yellow pulp is characterized by tenderness, juiciness, sweet with sour taste and delicate aroma.
The plant is medium in height with a circle-shaped crown. The eyes are attracted by red plums, the surface of which is distinguished by a waxy bloom. Chemalskaya red plum pulp is appreciated, which has a yellow-green hue and is characterized by juiciness, tenderness and amazing taste with sourness.
The culture is capable of reaching a height of 3.2 meters, has a rare paniculate crown. Wide-oval yellow plums, decorated with a burgundy-red blush, attract attention. The weight of one fruit is up to 50 g. The juicy pulp has a yellow color and is popular due to its pleasant sweet and sour taste.
The Chemal black plum tree of medium height forms a crown in the shape of a pyramid. Round-shaped fruits weigh up to 16 g. There is a good seam expression. The pulp has a white-yellow hue, moderate juiciness, sweet and sour taste with a slight astringency in the skin. The stone is small in size, perfectly separates from the pulp.
All these varieties of Chemalskaya plum are of interest to gardeners in Siberia, the Urals and the middle zone. Since in these regions the Chemalskaya plum is able to reveal all its fruit characteristics to the maximum.
Characteristics of the varietal series
The characteristic of the Chemalskaya plum variety includes the plant's resistance to low temperatures, moisture deficit, diseases and pests, as well as the timing of flowering and ripening of the crop.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
You need to know the winter hardiness of the Chemalskaya plum variety, since having badly survived the winter, the tree will no longer give a full harvest. According to the characteristics, the variety is winter-hardy, able to withstand frosts down to -40 0C. But it is recommended in the first years of the plant's life to use a covering material and simply cover the tree trunk with snow in the winter. According to the description, the Chemalskaya plum variety has poor drought tolerance.
Plum pollinators Chemalskaya
Chemalskaya plum needs cross-pollination. Any combination of Chemalskaya with one of such varieties as Peresvet, Altayskaya Jubilee, Sinilga, Pyramidalnaya, Krasnoselskaya will form a harvest on one or another tree.
Plum blossoms in May, and fruit ripens in August.
Productivity and fruiting
One of the main advantages of the Chemalskaya plum variety is its high yield, reviews of the Chemalskaya plum confirm this. Plum trees begin to bear fruit in the fourth year after planting. Fruits ripen in August. Up to 50 kg of plums can be removed from one plant.
Scope of berries
The fruits of the Chemalskaya plum variety will be useful both fresh and after processing. They can be dried, frozen. After such manipulations, they do not lose their beneficial properties. You can also make jam, tincture, wine from fruit.
Disease and pest resistance
The Chemalskaya plum variety is immune to such a dangerous disease as clotterosporia. There is also an average resistance to the moth and a weak resistance to moniliosis.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The Chemalskaya plum variety is endowed with a lot of advantages:
- yield stability, fruit quality;
- beautiful appearance and decent taste characteristics;
- a crop of universal purpose;
- excellent transportability of the crop;
- a source of vitamins and minerals vital for the human body.
The Chemalskaya plum variety also has disadvantages, which include:
- weak winter hardiness of fruit buds;
- instability to damping off;
- poor resistance to moniliosis.
An important criterion for growing the Chemal plum variety, on which the regularity of fruiting and the size of the fruit directly depends, is the correct planting and care.
It is better to plant Chemalskaya plum saplings in spring in April before bud break. During the summer months, young trees take root in the ground and acclimatize to external conditions. It is also allowed to plant in the fall at the end of September, a few weeks before the onset of frost.
Attention! It is necessary to carry out all measures to protect young Chemalskaya plum trees from strong temperature changes.
Choosing the right place
The main nuance when planting seedlings of the Chemalskaya plum variety is the choice of a site, in which such main criteria should be taken into account as:
- good illumination, since its lack can reduce the sugar content of plums and reduce the quality of the crop;
- protection from strong winds and drafts;
- the relief of a plot with flat terrain, since the presence of lowlands can flood the plants, which subsequently leads to weak growth and development and, as a result, the death of seedlings;
- the presence of moisture-consuming and air-permeable loams with a neutral reaction of the environment.
What crops can and cannot be planted nearby
Plum Chemalskaya does not tolerate the neighborhood of any fruit trees - pome and stone fruit, except for the apple tree. It is better to plant plum trees with the rest of the crops to share with black currant. Plum tree reacts well to gooseberries, does not compete with nearby raspberries.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When choosing seedlings of the Chemal plum variety, one should give preference to strong, healthy plants without diseases, mechanical damage, with a well-developed root system.
Advice! Before planting, the roots of plants must be dipped in an earthen mash to prevent them from drying out.
The cultivation of the Chemalskaya plum variety provides for the implementation of the following main stages of the planting process:
- At the bottom of the pit, you need to put fertilizers containing substances such as compost, superphosphate, wood ash.
- Spread the root system of a young tree and place it vertically in the hole carefully, without bending the roots.
- Cover with earth, shaking slightly the trunk, to fill the voids between the roots. The root collar should be level with the ground.
- After installing the Chemalskaya plum tree, water and cover the soil near the trunk with a layer of mulch up to 20 cm, using organic substances.
Plum follow-up care
The growth, development, fruiting of the Chemal plum depend on the efforts spent by gardeners on important agricultural practices. Proper care will increase its yield, extend the life span, give a beautiful appearance to the garden, and also prevent the development of dangerous diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses.
Caring for the Chemalskaya plum variety includes procedures aimed at ensuring the survival of the plant after planting and creating comfortable conditions for growth. The main procedures for the care of Chemalskaya plum include:
- high-quality watering, especially during the active growth of the plant and the formation of fruits;
- loosening the top layer of the earth to a depth of 10 cm in order to reduce evaporation and preserve the maximum amount of accumulated moisture;
- feeding with nutrients by applying complex fertilizers containing organic matter and mineral compounds over the entire root area;
- shaping, rejuvenating, thinning pruning in order to stimulate the growth of new shoots, form the growth of tree branches, its crown and increase productivity;
- protection for the winter by covering with spruce branches or other improvised materials, which will avoid freezing of the Chemalskaya plum and damage it by rodents.
Having received care and attention, the Chemalskaya plum will surely give you a generous harvest, which will delight you with juicy pulp, rich taste and an extraordinary bouquet of aromas.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
The Chemalskaya plum variety demonstrates excellent resistance to diseases inherent in the culture, but this indicator does not exclude the risk of infection. Therefore, you need to correctly recognize the problems and solve them effectively. This will help the information on dangerous diseases and pests given in the table.
Formation on foliage of small dark blotches of a rounded shape with a pale yellow color. Over time, the spots grow and become brown or brown. Then holes appear, leading to drying and falling of the leaves.
Burn the affected parts of the tree and treat with Bordeaux liquid
Instant falling of flowers, drying of peduncles and foliage, cracking of old shoots
Cut off all infected parts of the plant and treat with Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride
The presence of spots or stripes on young leaves, which eventually acquire marbling, and light areas are formed on them
Burn all affected trees, as the disease cannot be treated
The appearance of rusty spots, gradually increasing in size, as a result of falling foliage
It is necessary to spray using a 1% Bordeaux mixture solution
The larvae of this insect are able to destroy even green fruits, as they eat both the bones and the pulp of the fruit.
Destroy Painful Fruit
The appearance of this pale green insect can lead to twisting shoots, stunting the growth of the culture, drying and falling foliage, as they suck out the cell sap from the plant.
Treat with chemicals against leaf-gnawing and sucking insects
The fruits are attacked by a brown-gray butterfly, whose reddish caterpillars hide under the bark of the plant in winter. In springtime, the butterfly lays eggs in the fruits, and with the appearance of caterpillars, the fruits acquire a purple color and fall off, as the pest begins to feed on the pulp of plums.
Perform preventive spraying with "Karbofos", put on trapping belts and constantly loosen the soil
Important! Disease and pest control consists of both the use of agrotechnical, chemical and biological measures, and well-organized care.
Chemalskaya plum, due to its biological characteristics, is characterized by endurance and excellent adaptability, therefore it is most adapted to the conditions of the middle lane. This variety is often found in garden plots, as it is recognized by gardeners and consumers.
Oleg Vladimirovich Romanenko, Samara
Chemalskaya plum grows in my garden. I am very happy with the variety. Virtually no care is required, good resistance to frost is noted. Pleases with a harvest every year. The fruits are beautiful, surprising in size. They can be both canned and dried.
Tatiana Petrovna Cherkasova, Omsk
The taste of the Chemalskaya plum variety won me over. In addition, the fruits are large, perfect for preparations, excellent fresh, you can also prepare delicious liqueurs. Maintenance is easy, pruning, fertilizing and watering are standard.