Advice

Boletus mushrooms: photo and description, poisonous twins similar to edible, differences


Edible boletus is a real "celebrity" among the mushrooms that are collected in domestic forests. There are about 50 species of them in nature, and although only a few of them are in demand among lovers of "quiet hunting", they are highly valued for their abundance, pleasant aroma and excellent taste. These mushrooms do not have truly toxic twins, but it must be borne in mind that not all boletus is recommended to be eaten. In addition, unknowingly, you can confuse an edible mushroom with a completely different species, which may well be poisonous. The ability to distinguish false and edible butter from a photo will help the mushroom picker make the right choice from all the colorful variety that the summer and autumn forest offers, and put exactly what you need in the basket.

Are there false boletus

In fact, there is no such thing as a "false oil can" in the botanical classification. However, this is usually the name for those mushrooms that can easily be mistaken for the most popular types of edible oil in Russian forests (ordinary, granular, larch). Some of these "doubles" are edible conditionally, or there is no unequivocal opinion about the possibility of their consumption. A few more types can be eaten without fear, but their taste and aroma leave much to be desired.

It is worth dwelling in more detail on how such false boletus are called and how they look, their photos and description.

Important! If the so-called "twins" of boletus are considered conditionally edible, then, as a rule, their preparation has its own characteristics. You should not take this lightly: the consequences of improper cooking can be very unpleasant, up to a serious intestinal upset.

What mushrooms look like boletus

Among the mushrooms, similar to common boletus, you can most often come across the following:

  1. The butter dish is yellow-brown. Edible, but not very tasty mushroom. He has a semicircular hat with a diameter of 5-14 cm, its edges are wrapped down. The color is gray-yellow or gray-orange. With age, it turns red, then becomes light ocher. The pores under the cap are small, colored gray-yellow or brown-olive. The length of the leg is 3-9 cm, it is smooth, thick (up to 3.5 cm in girth), usually lemon-yellow in color.
  2. Siberian butter dish. Information about him is at variance. According to one version, this false butter dish is inedible, but not poisonous, according to another, it is edible, but does not have great nutritional value due to the acidity and bitterness in the taste. Its cap is 4-10 cm in diameter, light or dark yellow, covered with numerous reddish scales. In a young mushroom, it resembles a pillow, in an older one it acquires a convex shape, often with the edges bent upwards and a tubercle in the middle. The skin on it is slimy, it can be removed without difficulty. Leg from 0.5 to 2 cm thick and about 5-7 cm long, yellow in color with brown spots, not hollow inside. There is a fibrous ring on the stem, which disappears over time.
  3. Dry oiler, or goat. Edible, but bitter in taste, almost no aroma. The diameter of the cap is 3-9 cm, it is yellow-brown, ocher or brown. In young mushrooms, it is solid, convex; for those that are older, it becomes flatter and cracked. The surface of the cap is slimy in rainy weather and matte, velvety when dry. The pores are large and irregular. The thickness of the leg is small (1-2 cm), the length is 3-11 cm. It is hollow, sometimes curved in shape. At the place of the break, the flesh of the leg turns blue, and the cap turns pink.
  4. Pepper flywheel (pepper). According to some sources, this double of an ordinary oiler is inedible, according to others, it is classified as conditionally edible. It is named so because of the sharp, pungent taste of the pulp. The hat is 2-8 cm in diameter, copper-red or "rusty" in color, convex, rounded. Leg length 3-8 cm, thin (up to 1.5 cm), solid, can be bent. The pores are uneven, wide, to match the cap, but when pressed, they acquire a dark brown color.
  5. Spruce peel, or slug. Conditionally edible. The fleshy cap 4-10 cm in diameter in young mushrooms has the shape of a hemisphere, but over time it becomes convex-conical and even outstretched. Its color varies from gray-blue to gray-brown, while the middle is lighter than the edges. In an old mushroom, dark spots are noticeable on the surface of the cap. The leg is thick, massive, solid. Its length is 5-11 cm, the color of the lower part is usually bright yellow, and the upper part is grayish. The leg, like the cap, is thickly covered with a layer of mucus, which shines when dry.

Are there toadstools similar to boletus

Toadstool mushrooms are extremely difficult to confuse with boletus. For example, the most toxic of them, pale, is characterized by a wide (up to 12 cm in diameter) convex cap of a pale green, olive or white color, covered with a white film. The leg of the toadstool is long and thin (up to 1 cm). Just below the cap, it has a whitish fringed ring. Downward, the leg thickens and turns into a volva - a dense shell in the form of an egg or onion 3-5 cm thick.

Toadstool does not belong to false oils. She has her own counterparts - russula, greenfinches, mushrooms, floats.

Attention! The pine oil can, which appears in the middle of summer, vaguely resembles the dangerous panther fly agaric.

This toxic mushroom is not a false oiler, but an inexperienced mushroom picker may well be mistaken. Its most characteristic difference is the multiple raised white wart spots covering the cap. The edible butterdish has a clean, evenly colored cap. Only sometimes weak stains are noticeable on it - a consequence of the sun tan.

How to distinguish oil from false oil

In order not to get into a mess, going on a "mushroom hunt", you need to remember what "false" boletus are, carefully studying their photos and descriptions of characteristic features. Information about the chemicals that are contained in these mushrooms, their benefits or harm to the human body will be useful.

How oil differs from false oil in composition

The so-called "false" boletus listed above are generally considered edible or conditionally edible. They are distinguished from ordinary ones by a less pleasant or specific taste, as well as the need for additional processing before cooking.

However, in terms of chemical composition, they are all very similar. About 90% of their mass is water. The remaining 10% includes fiber, proteins, fatty acids, a rich set of vitamins and minerals. In terms of the variety of amino acids, these mushrooms, both real and the mentioned "false" ones, are not inferior to meat. The protein content in their pulp is much higher than in any of the vegetables, however, due to the high concentration of chitin, it is absorbed by the human body worse than animal protein.

Butter fat is a low-calorie product that is very suitable for a diet.

In addition, the composition of these mushrooms includes lactose, besides them, it is only found in animal products. There are also rare sugars in the pulp - mycosis, mycodextrin. The fruiting bodies of these mushrooms have a very high concentration of vitamin B (as in butter) and PP (even higher than in yeast or liver).

Here is a brief comparative characteristic of the compositional features of real and some types of conditionally false oil:

Butterlets

Ordinary

(real)

Goats

("False")

Yellow-brown

("False")

Spruce peels

("False")

Nutritional value (category)

II

III

III

IV

Useful material

Resinous substances, fats, carbohydrates, lecithin

Carotene, nebularin (antimicrobial substance)

Enzymes, essential oils

Carbohydrates, enzymes, natural antibiotics

Trace elements

Zinc, copper, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, manganese, potassium

Phosphorus

Molybdenum

Potassium, phosphorus

Vitamins

B, A, C, PP

B, D, PP

A, D, B, PP

ALL

Kcal per 100 g (fresh product)

17-19

20

19,2

19,2

Important! It is interesting to know that common boletus in food quality and composition is not inferior to the recognized "aristocrats" of the forest kingdom - porcini mushrooms.

How to distinguish false boletus from edible in appearance

A number of sources call pepper mushroom and Siberian butterdish inedible "false" oil. It is worth figuring out what external features will give them out to the mushroom picker who wants to fill the basket with only those mushrooms that can be eaten without fear.

How to identify a mushroom oiler

Edible boletus is described and depicted below. After examining the photos, it will become clear how to distinguish them from inedible and edible conditionally.

The three types of mushrooms that are most commonly found are:

  1. Real butter dish (ordinary, yellow, autumn, late). Characteristic is an oily-looking, convex cap with a small tubercle in the middle. It is covered with a mucous skin, painted in a bright brown color of various shades, from light to chocolate brown, and can reach 10-11 cm in diameter. The leg is thick (up to 3 cm), cylindrical in shape. Its length is about 10 cm, the lower part is brownish, the upper part is yellow. A dark brown or purple filmy ring is clearly visible on the stem. The pulp is white-yellow, juicy in the cap, slightly fibrous in the stem.
  2. Granular butter dish (early, summer). His cap is rounded-convex, up to 10 cm in size, reddish-brown in a young mushroom and lightening to a yellow-ocher color in an old one. The leg is up to 8 cm long, 1-2 cm thick, white-yellow, without a ring, in the upper part is covered with convex "grains". The pulp is dense, fragrant, yellowish-brown. The rounded pores of the tubular layer under the cap secrete white droplets of juice.
  3. Larch oil can. It has a glossy cap very brightly colored in yellow or orange tones. Its size varies from 3 to 10 cm, the shape is hemispherical at first, but flattens with age. The hat is covered with a smooth, shiny skin. The leg is solid, of medium thickness (up to 2 cm), it can be from 4 to 8 cm long, even or curved. Its structure is fine-grained. In the upper part of the leg there is a wide yellow ring. The pulp is yellowish, firm, with a pleasant fruity aroma.

What do false boletus look like

It is possible to determine the "false" oiler by its characteristic features. Each of these mushrooms has specific external features that help to recognize it:

  • if there is no ring on the leg, and the spongy layer on the back of the cap has a reddish tint, most likely this "false" oiler is a pepper pot;
  • in the case when the cap is gray or pale purple, and its lower side, instead of tubes, is covered with plates thickly smeared with mucus, it can be spruce moss;
  • the pores of the tubular layer of the “false” goat oiler are large, similar to a honeycomb, there is no ring on the leg, and the surface of the cap of old mushrooms is cracked;
  • Siberian butterdish is distinguished by a thick stem covered with ingrown fibers and a lighter cap with red-brown scales on it;
  • if the cap is yellow, dry, not oily, and even velvety to the touch, it is very likely that this "false" oiler is yellow-brown.

Differences between butters and false oils when cut and to taste

To understand whether a real oiler or "false" one should not only study its top and bottom views, but also cut it.

Oiler

Ordinary

(present)

Yellow-brown ("false")

Goat

("false")

Pepper

("false")

Siberian

("false")

Mokruha spruce

("false")

Pulp

White or yellowish

Yellow or orange

Pale yellow in the hat, pinkish in the leg

Yellow

Yellow

Pink

Cut color

Does not change color

Turns blue or turns purple

The leg turns blue, the hat turns slightly red

Blushes

Does not change color

Does not change color

Taste

Pleasant, "mushroom", odorless or with pine needles aroma

No special taste, there may be a "metallic" smell

No particular taste or slightly sour

Spicy, "peppery"

Pronounced sour

Sweetish, but can also be sour

What are the similarities between edible and inedible mushrooms

Comparing photos of edible and inedible oil, it is easy to see how they are similar. Most of them have convex caps covered with a slippery mucous skin (with the exception of the “false” yellow-brown appearance), painted mainly in various shades of brown and red. The legs are generally cylindrical and have a smooth or fibrous surface. They are of medium thickness and completely different heights (from 3 to 12 cm), depending on the size of the mushroom. Compared to the caps, they are lighter in color. Some species have a ring on the stem, while others do not.

Conditionally called "false" boletus, which really belong to the genus of the same name of the family of Maslenkovs of the order of Boletovs - tubular mushrooms. The exception is spruce wormwood. This "false oil can" really is not. He is a representative of the Mokrukhov family of the Boletov order, it is a lamellar mushroom.

More information about spruce moss, where they grow and what these conventionally "false boletus" are, can be found in the video https://youtu.be/CwotwBZY0nw

Real and "false" species of the place of growth are related - pine plantations, as well as mixed forests, where, in addition to conifers, a large number of oaks and birches grow. They love glades illuminated by the sun, grow well on forest edges and along roads, often hide under fallen pine needles. They are found almost everywhere in the cool temperate climate of the middle zone and northern part of Russia.

Both real and "false" boletus most often grow in groups, although there may be single specimens. They appear in abundance two to three days after rain. These mushrooms are also loved by generous morning dews.

In general, the season of boletus falls from June to October, but the peak of the simultaneous appearance of their various species falls on August-September.

What harm to the body can be caused by false boletus

It should be remembered that while "false" boils are not toxic or deadly, if not properly cooked, they will almost certainly become a source of health problems.

Important! Even conditionally edible species of these mushrooms should definitely not be consumed by pregnant and lactating women, young children under 5-6 years old, people with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Old, overripe and worm-tainted mushrooms are relatively dangerous: they can cause allergies or intestinal upset. For this reason, you should not collect the largest specimens - it is best to put small or medium ones (up to 8 cm) in the basket, choosing strong, whole and untouched by insects.

In addition, it is oil, both "false" and real, collected near highways or near industrial enterprises, that accumulate toxins, heavy metal salts and other harmful substances in their fruit bodies. Even soaking and heat treatment cannot get rid of them. In such places, mushrooms should not be picked at all.

Are there any poisonous boletus

There are no really poisonous oils in nature. However, there is a possibility that a poisonous mushroom of a completely different species, mistaken by him for an oiler, can get into the basket of an amateur mushroom picker. Therefore, one should go on a "quiet hunt" with good theoretical knowledge and practical skills, or else take an experienced comrade into the company.

Precautions

Edible varieties of butter, not only "false", but also real, it is imperative to recommend peeling before cooking in order to avoid intestinal disorders.

As for the conditionally edible species, before eating, you need to boil them for 20-30 minutes in boiling salted water. Then the broth must be drained, and the mushrooms must be used further in accordance with the recipe.

It is very advisable to deal with the processing of butter oil and the preparation of dishes from them directly on the day of collection, in extreme cases - in the morning of the next day. These mushrooms, both real and false, are perishable. They quickly become a breeding ground for bacteria. It is especially important not to forget about this when preparing butter for the winter in the form of homemade canned food.

For storage of salted or pickled oils (both real and "false"), in no case should you use galvanized or ceramic, coated with glaze containers. This can contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of lead and zinc in the finished mushroom dish, which is dangerous for the human body.

Warning! The first and most important rule known to every mushroom picker: "I'm not sure - don't take it!" If there is even a shadow of doubt that this mushroom has been identified correctly, you should not cut it! Otherwise, you can significantly harm health and even life.

Conclusion

Knowing how to distinguish false and edible boletus from a photo, and knowing how to recognize their most common types by their characteristic features, you can confidently go after them into the forest. These mushrooms do not have poisonous counterparts. You can collect not only real butter, but also many of those that are popularly called "false". Some of them are quite edible, some conditionally edible species, they require preliminary boiling before use. Mushrooms such as peppercorn or Siberian butterdish, the edibility of which is a matter of dispute, is still better not to cut: during the season you can find other types of butter, more tasty and safer. You also need to remember that it is important not only to correctly identify the mushroom before taking it to your basket, but also to know how to properly process and cook it. Then the prey from the "quiet hunt" on the table will really bring pleasure and will not create health problems.


Watch the video: 7 Common Poisonous Mushrooms You Should Know (November 2021).

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