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Pests and diseases hosts: the fight against them, photo

Pests and diseases hosts: the fight against them, photo


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Hosta diseases can be of fungal or viral origin. Some ailments are very dangerous and not amenable to treatment, others can be quickly eliminated, but in any case, it is necessary to distinguish between their symptoms.

Causes and signs of host disease affection

Most often, the hosta is affected by fungal diseases. Improper care of the plant becomes the main reason. The development of fungi is especially promoted by:

  • swampy and acidic soil;
  • lack of mineral elements in the soil;
  • excessive shading or excess sunlight;
  • thickening of plantings, if the flower bed on which the hosta grows is too dense, the risk of disease increases;
  • poor sanitary condition of the site and uncleared plant debris;
  • poor ventilation and rare loosening of the soil.

In addition to fungi, ornamental crops can be affected by viruses. Such diseases are most often carried by insect pests. In addition, the virus can penetrate the host tissues from the soil, for example, if a diseased plant grew on the site earlier, and the site after it was not disinfected. In some cases, seedlings are already diseased during planting; not all nurseries are able to guarantee the unconditional quality of the material.

Hosta can suffer from diseases and pests due to improper care

The symptoms of viral and fungal diseases are usually very similar. A gardener should be wary if:

  • hosta leaves begin to turn yellow, weaken and curl;
  • the plant stops growing, loses its color saturation and does not bloom;
  • leaf plates are covered with an ugly bloom or spots of light and dark color.

At the first symptoms, the decorative culture must be studied more carefully. This will allow you to establish what exactly she is sick with, and immediately begin treatment.

Diseases of hosts with photos and their treatment

Garden hosta can suffer from viral and fungal diseases. To take the right control measures, you need to study the photos and descriptions of diseases and learn how to distinguish them from each other.

Rust

Rust is a fairly common disease of the decorative culture. It occurs most often in hot summers with insufficient watering. The disease is easily recognizable by the reddish-brown spots that quickly cover the leaf plates and merge with each other. Under the influence of rust, the leaves begin to dry and wilt, which can lead to the death of the hosts.

With rust, orange-brown spots appear on the leaves

The fight against rust is carried out with the help of fungicidal preparations, for example, Fundazole or Bordeaux liquid. In this case, the leaves affected by the disease must be removed. If the disease did not have time to spread too much, then spraying allows you to cope with it.

Crown rot

The disease is characterized by yellowing and wilting of the leaves from the outside towards the center, which explains the name. The root rot becomes the cause of yellowing - the diseased hosta ceases to receive nutrition from the soil and rapidly fades. The structure of the leaf plates can become loose, large leaves begin to simply come off the bush. In advanced cases, white filaments of fungal mycelium become visible on the host.

When the crown rot, the host begins to turn yellow on the outside of the crown

Corona rot is difficult to cure as the roots may be severely damaged by the time symptoms appear. If the symptoms of the disease are mild, you can treat the host and the soil around its roots with fungicidal preparations. With a strong defeat, it is better to dig up the bush and destroy it until the fungus has spread to neighboring crops.

Phylostictosis

Fungal disease leads to the appearance of brown spots on the leaf plates of a garden plant. Gradually, these spots merge with each other and completely cover the leaf, and a yellowish or whitish bloom forms on top. The necrotic areas dry out and crumble, the ornamental plant dies.

Phylostictosis leaves brown spots, which are then covered with bloom

Phyllostictosis appears usually in conditions of waterlogging. To combat the disease, you need to treat the host with Abiga-Peak, Strobi or copper sulfate, and also reduce the frequency of watering.

Anthracnose

The widespread disease mainly affects hosts growing in shaded areas and on moist soils. Anthracnose is manifested by brown spots and dots with a dark border on the leaf plates. Gradually, the spots grow over the entire leaf, because of which it dries up, deforms and falls off.

With anthracnose, brown spots with a dark border appear.

For the treatment of anthracnose, it is necessary to completely remove the affected leaf plates, and then spray the plantings with fungicidal agents - Fundazole or Bordeaux liquid. The area with hosts must be thinned out to provide good ventilation. It is better to reduce watering, the appearance of anthracnose indicates that the soil is waterlogged.

Soft rot

A dangerous bacterial disease affects the hosta in the lower part and leads to decomposition of the stem and lower leaves. You can recognize a fungal disease by the brown spots on the leaf plates and the characteristic putrid smell emanating from the hosta.

The disease appears most often in conditions of high humidity, in the presence of damage on the leaves and stems, as well as after freezing of the hosta during spring frosts. Soft rot does not lend itself to treatment; the host affected by the disease will have to be completely removed from the site. After that, the tools must be thoroughly washed and disinfected, and the soil, just in case, must be treated with formalin.

With soft rot, the leaves and stem of the plant simply begin to decompose.

Important! If the soil is neglected, bacteria can remain in it, and this will pose a threat to neighboring plants.

Sclerotiniasis

The fungal disease begins to spread from the root collar of the bush. At the same time, whitish threads resembling cotton wool are formed on the surface of the stem in the lower part. Hosta leaves become covered with brown spots and begin to die off, black sclerotia gradually appear at the site of plaque.

It is easy to recognize sclerotinosis by whitish threads on the stem

Sclerotiniasis is a dangerous disease that does not respond to treatment. The affected host can only be removed from the site and cultivate the soil in which it grew so that the disease does not affect other plantings.

Gray rot

The disease can be recognized by the appearance of an ash deposit on the leaves. As the disease progresses, the leaves begin to rot and the tops dry out. Ultimately, the affected parts of the plant die off, the hosta stops growing and withers. Gray rot spreads quickly and, if untreated, invades neighboring crops.

Gray rot leaves a whitish coating on the leaf plates

With a weak lesion, you can treat the host with Fundazol or Ridomil Gold, having previously cut off all the affected areas. If the plant is seriously infected, it is best to dig it up and burn it.

Tobacco rattle virus

An incurable viral disease poses a serious danger to many crops, vegetables, flowering perennials and hosts. When infected, the culture stops growing, and its shoots and leaves are deformed, necrotic spots and speckled areas appear on the leaf plates. It is impossible to cope with the virus, the plant affected by the disease can only be eliminated.

The rattle virus leaves light spots and mosaic on leaf plates

The rattle of tobacco is dangerous because it easily passes to other plants through the soil and unrefined tools. Therefore, after removing the hosta from the soil, it is necessary to thoroughly disinfect both the soil and the pruner or knife with which the plant was cut.

Leaf curl virus

Leaf curl is a viral disease that especially often affects tomatoes, but it also suffers from it and the host. The infection disrupts the growth functions of the plant, the leaves shrivel and deform, tear in some places, and become covered with small stellate spots. In the later stages of the disease, necrotic areas appear in place of these spots, which quickly fall out of the leaf tissue.

From the curl virus, the leaf plates are deformed and covered with an uneven light pattern

There is no cure for viral curl, so the host can only be removed from the site. The soil after it should be disinfected and in the future, carefully monitor other plants.

Virus X (HVX)

Hosta X virus, or HVX, is a dangerous disease that is characteristic of this particular horticultural crop. She was discovered in 1996, and her symptoms are very similar to those of other viral mosaics. When the X virus is infected, the leaves of the plant begin to curl, specks and mosaics appear on them, the plant dies over time.

The host mosaic virus brightens unevenly and begins to curl

At the first symptoms of the virus, the host needs to be removed from the flower bed and burned, and then disinfected not only the soil, but also tools, and even work clothes. Virus X is very easily transmitted to other plants along with the remains of the sap of the infected specimen.

Advice! It is believed that the Siebold host has a higher immunity to the X virus, although it is not absolutely protected from it. To reduce the risk of infection, you can give preference to this particular species.

Host pests and methods of dealing with them

For hosts in the garden, not only fungi are dangerous, but also harmful insects. Parasites can cause just as much damage to a flower bed, but most of them can be successfully combated.

Deciduous nematodes

Small nematode worms can infect both the root system of plants and the aerial part, but on the host they are usually localized in the leaves. You can find out about the presence of worms by the characteristic dark stripes on the stems and leaves, indicating the path of movement of the pest from the roots.

You can find out about the presence of nematodes by the characteristic brown stripes.

Nematodes are one of the few pests that do not yet exist to get rid of. The hosts simply burn the affected bush, and then disinfect the soil and garden tools.

Snails

Large garden hosts often attract the attention of snails. Gastropods capture the leafy plates of the plant and feed on greenery and stems. If you do not start the fight in time, then the snails will be able to eat the hosta bush entirely to the very root.

Snails can seriously eat a garden plant

Since snails hibernate in the soil, in the spring it is recommended to loosen the soil at the roots of the hosta and replace its top layer. During the warm season, the leaves of the plant should be inspected regularly. The snails found are removed by hand; if there are a large number of insects, you can spray the host with soapy water.

Beetles

Ornamental hosta can suffer from beetles, and in particular from weevils, weevils, which pose a threat to roots and leaves. Beetle larvae develop in the soil and eat the roots of the plant, the adult pest feeds on stems and leaf plates. The beetle looks like a large insect up to 10 cm long with a dark shell.

Beetles leave holes on the leaf plates of hosts

You can find out about the presence of beetles by the appearance of semicircular holes along the edges of the leaf plates. The pest often affects the hosta on dry and poor soils. If beetles are affected, the host should be immediately sprayed with an insecticidal solution, for example, Aktellik or Aktara, the entire flower bed is treated.

Caterpillars

Caterpillars of butterflies, which feed on hosta juices, are no less dangerous for the ornamental plant. It is easy to recognize caterpillars; as a result of their vital activity, through holes appear on the leaves, uneven notches at the edges. Hosta buds and flowers suffer during the flowering period.

Caterpillars actively feed on green matter hosts

In case of low infestation, caterpillars can be collected manually; they are also simply washed off from the leaves with a stream of water. If there are many pests, then the host needs to be treated with Karbofos, Intavir and other means.

Attention! Since the pupae of the butterflies hibernate in the soil, it is especially important to dig up the area in autumn and take out all the plant debris.

Rodents

Hosta is a fairly large garden plant. Therefore, it often attracts the attention of rodents - mice, rats and others. Rodents damage the roots and thick stems of the plant, which leads to the death of the plantings. You can find out about the appearance of pests by characteristic lesions in the lower part of the stem and by impaired growth.

For decorative hosts, not only insects are dangerous, but also rodents

Rodent control is usually carried out with the help of poisonous baits - the granules are scattered under the bushes. For the winter, the trimmed plant must be mulched tightly with compost or peat. If there are pets in the area, it is important to make sure that they do not accidentally eat the poison that is intended for rats and mice.

Slugs

Gastropods feed on the green parts of the plant and are especially prone to attack hosts with thin leaves, young specimens and dwarf varieties. You can find out about the presence of slugs by the silvery stripes on the leaves - pests leave a characteristic trail when moving. Through holes in the leaves of the plant also indicate infection with slugs.

Slugs often infect small varieties and young plants.

To get rid of slugs, you need to scatter the Thunderstorm bait or Methylaldehyde under the bushes, and spread soaked sheets of plywood on the flower bed overnight. The next day, the caught pests can be collected and destroyed.

Prevention measures

Disease and pest control is not just about treatment. First of all, you need to follow the basic rules of prevention - they will help, in principle, to avoid most problems:

  1. The soil at the roots of the hosta should not be waterlogged. It is necessary to adhere to moderate watering, because in conditions of waterloggedness, fungal diseases spread especially quickly.
  2. Every year the host needs to be fed with complex mineral fertilizers. The balanced composition of the soil strengthens the plant's endurance and reduces the risk of infection by viruses and fungi.
  3. In the fall, the area with ornamental crops must be carefully cleaned. All plant debris is collected from the ground, taken out to a far corner of the garden and destroyed, since it is under the fallen leaves that larvae and fungal spores usually hibernate. For the same reason, it is recommended to prune the host for the winter; dangerous bacteria can develop under the plant's own wilted leaves.
  4. Planting hosts should not be overly thickened. Plants growing nearby must receive a sufficient amount of light and fresh air, otherwise the risk of developing fungal diseases will greatly increase.

So that the hosta does not suffer from diseases, you need to monitor the cleanliness of the site

To save the host from fungal ailments and viruses, it is recommended to carry out annual preventive spraying. At the beginning of spring, the flower bed is treated with Bordeaux liquid or any fungicidal agent according to the instructions, then the treatment is repeated twice more with interruptions of 15-20 days. If there are fungal spores in the soil at the roots, then with timely prevention they simply cannot develop and manifest as characteristic symptoms.

With regard to pests, insecticide spraying is usually carried out after the presence of insects becomes obvious.As a preventive measure, it is recommended to regularly loosen the soil and annually replace its top layer, in which the larvae usually hide.

Conclusion

Diseases of hosts in a neglected state can quickly destroy an ornamental plant. But if you notice the symptoms in time and start treatment, then most ailments can be dealt with.


Watch the video: Plantix, a plant disease and diagnostic tool. (February 2023).

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