Ficus (Ficus) - unpretentious plant, successfully fits into any interior. Many different species and varieties grow in nature, differing in leaf color, size, type - shrub, vine, tree or ampelous form.
At home, they often prefer ficus Pumila (Ficus pumila), the bright representative of which is the variety Anuk (Ficus pumila anuk), ficus benjamin (Ficus benjamina) and rubber-bearing (Ficus elastica). Each of the species has its own distinctive features and presents different requirements for care.
Varieties of Ficus
General information on species and selection
At this time, 3 main types of ficuses are distinguished:
The method of propagation of each type is determined based on its features. But in most cases, reproduction is carried out by cuttings or kidneys. In this case, ampelous plants develop most quickly.
- Stranglers. Plants differ in that they lead a "suffocating" lifestyle. Of course, they do not crush the trunk of the host tree, but produce a strong frame around it, which prevents its growth. For example, the variety Kaulokarp (Ficus caulocarpa) it is capable of entwining the tree with roots so that over time it is impossible to determine where the ficus is covered with moss, and where is its "owner".
- Figs (Carted). In Central Asia and Iran, this variety is often found. He loves to be among the mountains, is a deciduous species and does not tolerate frost. However, the plant is able to recover quickly after exposure to low temperatures.
- Multi-leaved (Ficus diversifolia Blume). It is characterized by slow growth, reaches a height of only 1 meter. Leaves are green with spots, inedia is inedible. It is used to form bonsai.
- Parcella (Ficus parcellii Veitch). Grungy ficus growing in nature on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The branches of the tree are pubescent, the height is small - up to 2 meters. Leaflets are green with white, oblong, a variety suitable for growing at home.
- Boxwood (Ficus buxifolia De Willd). Liana reaches 1.5 meters, the shoots are grayish in color. The length of the leaves is 4 centimeters, the width is 2 centimeters. The plant prefers to be in moist places.
- Ivy (Ficus hederacea Roxb). It is found in Thailand, North India. In appearance, it resembles a tiny ficus. The leaves are small, there are bubbles on them, the petiole is short.
- Dull (Ficus retusa). The tree has aerial roots that serve as a backup. Grows in the tropics. The leaves are small, blunt-pointed, which allows you to create an excellent bonsai from the plant.
- Sacred (Ficus religiosa). Grows in mixed forests. It reaches a height of up to 18 meters, the leaves are triangular, petioles elongated. The species is suitable for growing at home.
The most popular varieties and types
There are several varieties that have gained the greatest popularity among lovers of indoor and greenhouse plants.
The most popular type of ficus is Benjamin (Ficus benjamina), representing an evergreen tree capable of reaching 20 meters in height. Another characteristic feature of the plant is the presence of drooping shoots and aerial roots, as well as narrow and long leaves of a dark color. The species includes a large number of varieties with unique characteristics.
Another famous species is ficus binnendijk (Ficus binnendijkii), representing an evergreen plant. His bark is gray, the leaves are long, reminiscent of bamboo foliage. This variety includes a variety of varieties suitable for growing at home. Consider the popular varieties of ficus species Benjamin, Binnendeijk, Rubber-bearing and some others (see table).
|Grade name||general description||Distinctive features|
|Pandora (PANDORA)||Ficus Benjamin, characterized by small leaves. The property is good, the shape is compact.||The plant does not like when it is moved from place to place, for the active development of ficus in the winter, the room temperature should be about 20 degrees.|
|Anastasia (Anastasia)||Variegated variety has even dark leaves, a strip of white color runs along their edges, the central vein is light green.||It grows quickly, requires more lighting than other varieties.|
The leaves are twisted into a spiral, the ficus itself is miniature.
It is difficult to grow at home, it is actively used for landscaping in group plantings.
|It has the form of a bush, the bark is gray, the leaves are variegated - green with a border, narrow, small.||Does not bloom, grows slowly, can reach large sizes.|
|Nitida||Ficus Benjamin, able to grow into a large tree in natural conditions. The shoots are drooping, the leaves are pointed.||It is actively used for landscaping, grown in tubs.|
You can recognize the Benjamin ficus of the variety presented by the three-color color of the foliage and the presence of spots.
An unstable variety, if the plant lacks light, the beautiful color of the foliage will quickly go away.
|It has swirling leaves of light color, reaching 4 cm in length and 2 in width.||The plant requires periodic spraying in hot weather, otherwise the leaves will start to crumble, otherwise the care is carried out according to general rules.|
|Danielle||Leaves are even, saturated green, glossy, reach 6 cm in length.||In nature, it can reach the size of a large tree, the variety does not have high requirements for care.|
|Golden King||The plant has green leaves with a white border, reaches a height of one and a half meters, in diameter - about 27 cm.||Prefers location in bright places, air temperature about 22 degrees, requires spraying.|
The plant has green leaves with spots and a border of white or green color, ficus can reach a height of 110 cm.
It is considered one of the best plants for the interior, it requires irrigation once every 7 days, feeding is not required.
Benjamin's small-leaved ficus, the color of the foliage is yellowish with dark and light spots, which become noticeable only in bright light.
Perfect for creating green sculptures, perfectly holds the geometric shape.
Ficus Elastika has wide massive leaves, young foliage has a beetroot hue, then as it grows older it becomes green, the plant is large - up to 75 cm.
|Prefers to be in a well-lit place, otherwise unpretentious to care.|
|Palmer (Ficus palmieri)||Mexican variety, characterized in that its trunk has the shape of a bottle tree, the leaves are collected in a bunch and are located at the top.|
You can get ficus when growing from seeds, vegetative propagation; the stem will be erect.
Belize (Ficus Elastica Belize)
The variety has an interesting color of foliage resembling camouflage; the leaves are large, leathery.
It is not easy to grow a variety; it needs good illumination and a certain air humidity. If these rules are not followed, the leaves will lose their color.
Triangularis (Ficus triangularis)
A tree shrub that can begin its life as an epiphyte, and then become a strangler. The crown is brown, the leaves are triangular.
The fruiting of the plant is active - there are many syconia in the form of a ball having a yellow or green hue.
Popular Varieties for Home Growing
Many varieties and types of ficus are suitable for home growing. Moreover, many of them at one young age have one color of foliage, and in an adult - another. An excellent option for growing a house are considered tree-like and any tropical plants.
|Plant description||Home growing requirements|
|Tineke||The rubbery plant has an unusual leaf color - green with cream and gray spots of different sizes and shapes.||Variegated variety makes high demands on humidity and light level. With a lack of lighting, the leaves lose their diversity.|
|Ali (Ficus Alii)||It has a high decorative effect throughout the year. Has multi-colored petals; it cleans the air well, is actively used to create the interior of banks and offices.||Do not put ficus "Ali" in direct sunlight. The air temperature when growing indoors should reach about 14 degrees, moderate watering is required.|
|Mikrokarpa Moklaym (Moclame)||The height of the plant is half a meter, diameter is 14 cm. It perfectly takes the form of a banyan tree.||The plant is plastic, unpretentious, tolerates pruning.|
|Andrew (FicusAndrew)||It reaches a height of 60 cm, a diameter of 27 cm, the underside of the leaves is velvety, the color of the leaves is green with veins.||Recommended to be located on the western and eastern windows. The temperature in the room for growing should reach 12-25 degrees|
|Karika, or Fig (Ficus carica)||Deciduous plant, capable of growing up to 10 meters. The leaves are rough; pollination is carried out by insects.||The temperature in the room for growing should reach 10-25 degrees, lighting figs need good, otherwise the flower is unpretentious.|
|Cyatistipula (Ficus cyathistipula)||An evergreen plant growing up to 15 meters in height may be an epiphyte. Grayish bark, leaves with stipules.||Suitable for growing in the office, not afraid to be in the shade, tolerates temperature extremes.|
|Panda (Ficus panda)||It is an evergreen plant, there are small spherical fruits, leathery leaves.||It requires tying and is afraid of drafts, at a temperature below 8 degrees the plant begins to lose foliage.|
|Retusa (Ficus retusa)||The tree has a bifurcated trunk, in height in nature it can reach 20 meters, the house is grown as a bonsai; the leaves are dense, dull.||It requires regular watering and a well-lit place. From spring to autumn, it needs special top dressing for bonsai.|
|Tiny (Ficus pumila)||Creeping shrub, can be used as an ampel plant. At a young age, the leaves are asymmetric, small, then become larger, the color of the foliage varies depending on the variety.||It requires high humidity, which means it will have to be sprayed periodically; the plant is shade tolerant, does not bloom at home.|
|Curly (Curly)||Ficus Benjamin has green leaves with a cream strip, which is located near the central vein.||It makes high demands on the level of light: if there is insufficient light, the motley color of the foliage will disappear. Young ficus requires support.|
|Ginseng, or Microcarpa (Ficus Microcarpa)||In nature, it can reach large sizes and is considered very aggressive. House is grown as a pseudo-bonsai and does not pose a danger. After pruning, it looks like a small shrub with unusual branches and oval leaves. The color of young foliage is yellow, adults are reddish||Feels better in partial shade, every day it is necessary to spray and wipe the leaves with a damp sponge. During the growth period, top dressing with organic and mineral substances is required.|
|Monic||Leaves have wavy edges, delicate, thin branches.|
One of the most popular decorative varieties, elegant ficus, used for indoor cultivation.
Bengali, Banyan (BENGHALENSIS)
|One of the types of Banyan, has many aerial roots, the number of trunks can reach up to hundreds.||At home, grown as a bonsai. The length of the leaves reaches 20 centimeters, monkeys are actively enjoying the fruits of the plant.|
The variety of rubbery ficus is easily recognized by dark foliage. In the morning, the leaves are dark green, in the afternoon - closer to the black shade.
It is grown not only at home, but also on the open ground.
It has a bizarrely curving trunk, which is why it is often used to create bonsai.
It can be used as a tapeworm; a young ficus looks great surrounded by flowers.
Varietal and species diversity of ficus is impressive. Plants are distinguished by the color and brightness of the leaves, the shape of the trunk and crown, requirements for the conditions of detention. Many varieties feel great at home and are actively used to decorate the interior.